To prevent weight gain or to continue losing weight, people with anorexia usually severely restrict the amount of food they eat......Overview Anorexia (an-o-REK-see-uh) nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. People with anorexia place a high value on controlling their weight and shape, using extreme efforts that tend to significantly interfere with their lives.To prevent weight gain or to continue losing weight, people with anorexia usually severely restrict the amount of food they eat. They may control calorie intake by vomiting after eating or by misusing laxatives, diet aids, diuretics or enemas. They may also try to lose weight by exercising excessively. No matter how much weight is lost, the person continues to fear weight gain.Anorexia isn't really about food. It's an extremely unhealthy and sometimes life-threatening way to try to cope with emotional problems. When you have anorexia, you often equate thinness with self-worth.Anorexia, like other eating disorders, can take over your life and can be very difficult to overcome. But with treatment, you can gain a better sense of who you are, return to healthier eating habits and reverse some of anorexia's serious complications.Physical symptoms Physical signs and symptoms of anorexia may include:Extreme weight loss or not making expected developmental weight gainsThin appearanceAbnormal blood countsFatigueInsomniaDizziness or faintingBluish discoloration of the fingersHair that thins, breaks or falls outSoft, downy hair covering the bodyAbsence of menstruationConstipation and abdominal painDry or yellowish skinIntolerance of coldIrregular heart rhythmsLow blood pressureDehydrationSwelling of arms or legsEroded teeth and calluses on the knuckles from induced vomitingSome people who have anorexia binge and purge, similar to individuals who have bulimia. But people with anorexia generally struggle with an abnormally low body weight, while individuals with bulimia typically are normal to above normal weight.Causes The exact cause of anorexia is unknown. As with many diseases, it's probably a combination of biological, psychological and environmental factors.Biological Although it's not yet clear which genes are involved, there may be genetic changes that make some people at higher risk of developing anorexia. Some people may have a genetic tendency toward perfectionism, sensitivity and perseverance — all traits associated with anorexia.Psychological Some people with anorexia may have obsessive-compulsive personality traits that make it easier to stick to strict diets and forgo food despite being hungry. They may have an extreme drive for perfectionism, which causes them to think they're never thin enough. And they may have high levels of anxiety and engage in restrictive eating to reduce it.Environmental Modern culture emphasizes thinness. Success and worth are often equated with being thin. Peer pressure may help fuel the desire to be thin, particularly among young girls.Risk factors Anorexia is more common in girls and women. However, boys and men have increasingly developed eating disorders, possibly related to growing social pressures.Anorexia is also more common among teenagers. Still, people of any age can develop this eating disorder, though it's rare in those over 40. Teens may be more at risk because of all the changes their bodies go through during puberty. They may also face increased peer pressure and be more sensitive to criticism or even casual comments about weight or body shape.Certain factors increase the risk of anorexia, including:Genetics Changes in specific genes may put certain people at higher risk of anorexia. Those with a first-degree relative — a parent, sibling or child — who had the disorder have a much higher risk of anorexia.Dieting and starvation Dieting is a risk factor for developing an eating disorder. There is strong evidence that many of the symptoms of anorexia are actually symptoms of starvation. Starvation affects the brain and influences mood changes, rigidity in thinking, anxiety and reduction in appetite. Starvation and weight loss may change the way the brain works in vulnerable individuals, which may perpetuate restrictive eating behaviors and make it difficult to return to normal eating habits.Transitions Whether it's a new school, home or job; a relationship breakup; or the death or illness of a loved one, change can bring emotional stress and increase the risk of anorexia.Prevention There's no guaranteed way to prevent anorexia nervosa. Primary care physicians (pediatricians, family physicians and internists) may be in a good position to identify early indicators of anorexia and prevent the development of full-blown illness. For instance, they can ask questions about eating habits and satisfaction with appearance during routine medical appointments.If you notice that a family member or friend has low self-esteem, severe dieting habits and dissatisfaction with appearance, consider talking to him or her about these issues. Although you may not be able to prevent an eating disorder from developing, you can talk about healthier behavior or treatment options.
Endometriosis affects roughly 10% (190 million) of reproductive age women and girls globally.Key facts ①Endometriosis affects roughly 10% (190 million) of reproductive age women and girls globally.②It is a chronic disease associated with severe, life-impacting pain during periods, sexual intercourse, bowel movements and/or urination, chronic pelvic pain, abdominal bloating, nausea, fatigue, and sometimes depression, anxiety, and infertility.③There is currently no known cure for endometriosis and treatment is usually aimed at controlling symptoms.④Access to early diagnosis and effective treatment of endometriosis is important, but is limited in many settings, including in low- and middle-income countries.Overview Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. It can cause severe pain in the pelvis and make it harder to get pregnant.Endometriosis can start at a person’s first menstrual period and last until menopause.Endometriosis will lead to inflammation and scar tissue forming in the pelvic region and (rarely) elsewhere in the body.The cause of endometriosis is unknown. There is no known way to prevent endometriosis. There is no cure, but its symptoms can be treated with medicines or, in some cases, surgery.It causes a chronic inflammatory reaction that may result in the formation of scar tissue (adhesions, fibrosis) within the pelvis and other parts of the body. Several lesion types have been described:superficial endometriosis found mainly on the pelvic peritoneumcystic ovarian endometriosis (endometrioma) found in the ovariesdeep endometriosis found in the recto-vaginal septum, bladder, and bowelin rare cases, endometriosis has also been found outside the pelvisSymptoms Endometriosis often causes severe pain in the pelvis, especially during menstrual periods. Some people also have pain during sex or when using the bathroom. Some people have trouble getting pregnant.Some people with endometriosis don’t have any symptoms. For those who do, a common symptom is pain in the lower part of the belly (pelvis). Pain may be most noticeable: during a period, during or after sex, when urinating or defecating.Some people also experience: chronic pelvic pain, heavy bleeding during periods or between periods, trouble getting pregnant, bloating or nausea, fatigue, depression or anxiety. Symptoms often improve after menopause, but not always.Endometriosis symptoms are variable and broad, meaning that healthcare workers may not easily diagnose it. Individuals with symptoms may not be aware of the condition.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that affects your hormones.Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that affects your hormones. It causes irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne and infertility. Treatment for PCOS depends on if you wish to become pregnant. People with PCOS may be at higher risk for certain health conditions, like diabetes and high blood pressure.What is polycystic ovarian syndrome? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance that occurs when your ovaries (the organ that produces and releases eggs) create excess hormones. If you have PCOS, your ovaries produce unusually high levels of hormones called androgens. This causes your reproductive hormones to become imbalanced. As a result, people with PCOS often have irregular menstrual cycles, missed periods and unpredictable ovulation. Small follicle cysts (fluid-filled sacs with immature eggs) may be visible on your ovaries on ultrasound due to lack of ovulation (anovulation). However, despite the name "polycystic," you don’t need to have cysts on your ovaries to have PCOS. The ovarian cysts aren’t dangerous or painful.PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women and people assigned female at birth (AFAB). It can also increase your risk of other health conditions. Your healthcare provider can treat PCOS based on your symptoms and if you wish to become pregnant.What age does PCOS start? Women can get PCOS any time after puberty. Most people are diagnosed in their 20s or 30s when they’re trying to get pregnant. You may have a higher chance of getting PCOS if you have obesity or if other people in your biological family have PCOS.How common is PCOS? PCOS is very common — up to 15% of women of reproductive age have PCOS.What are the signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? The most common signs and symptoms of PCOS include:Irregular periods Abnormal menstruation involves missing periods or not having a period at all. It may also involve heavy bleeding during periods.Abnormal hair growth You may grow excess facial hair or experience heavy hair growth on your arms, chest and abdomen (hirsutism). This affects up to 70% of people with PCOS.Acne PCOS can cause acne, especially on your back, chest and face. This acne may continue past your teenage years and may be difficult to treat.Obesity Between 40% and 80% of people with PCOS have obesity and have trouble maintaining a weight that’s healthy for them.Darkening of the skin You may get patches of dark skin, especially in the folds of your neck, armpits, groin (between the legs) and under your breasts. This is known as acanthosis nigricans.Cysts Many people with PCOS have ovaries that appear larger or with many follicles (egg sac cysts) on ultrasound.Thinning hair People with PCOS may lose patches of hair on their head or start to bald.Infertility PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in people AFAB. Not ovulating regularly or frequently can result in not being able to conceive.What is the main cause of PCOS? The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. There’s evidence that genetics play a role. Several other factors, most importantly obesity, also play a role in causing PCOS:Higher levels of male hormones called androgens High androgen levels prevent your ovaries from releasing eggs, which causes irregular menstrual cycles. Irregular ovulation can also cause small, fluid-filled sacs to develop on your ovaries. High androgen also causes acne and excess hair growth in women and people AFAB.Insulin resistance An increase in insulin levels causes your ovaries to make and release male hormones (androgens). Increased male hormones suppress ovulation and contribute to other symptoms of PCOS. Insulin helps your body process glucose (sugar) and use it for energy. Insulin resistance means your body doesn’t process insulin correctly, leading to high glucose levels in your blood. Not all individuals with insulin resistance have elevated glucose or diabetes, but insulin resistance can lead to diabetes. Having overweight or obesity can also contribute to insulin resistance. An elevated insulin level, even if your blood glucose is normal, can indicate insulin resistance.Low-grade inflammation People with PCOS tend to have chronic low-grade inflammation. Your healthcare provider can perform blood tests that measure levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells, which can indicate the level of inflammation in your body.
All vaginas naturally produce scents. The smells that your vagina emits communicate information about your lifestyle, activities and overall health......What is abnormal vaginal odor? All vaginas naturally produce scents. The smells that your vagina emits communicate information about your lifestyle, activities and overall health. For instance, vaginal odor often varies throughout your menstrual cycle. Vaginal discharge often smells most pronounced midcycle. Your vagina may give off a stronger odor after intercourse or a workout. Everyone’s vagina has a unique scent, and that’s completely normal.A strong unfamiliar and unpleasant odor — especially one that continues for several days and smells fishy – isn’t normal. A smelly vaginal odor may be a symptom of a health problem, especially when it accompanies other symptoms like a grayish-white vaginal discharge, burning and itching.What causes vaginal odor? Your vaginal odor often depends on your pH level, or how acidic your vagina is. Various types of bacteria live in your vagina. They make up what’s called your vaginal flora. These bacteria exist in a delicate balance to keep your vagina at the right acidity (pH) level. Having a healthy pH prevents infections that cause a foul vaginal odor. On the other hand, imbalance in your vaginal flora may cause your vagina to smell fishy, musty or generally unpleasant.How can vaginal odor be prevented? You can put healthy habits in place to keep your vulva clean and protect your vagina from infection. Practice good hygiene Shower regularly and only use mild, unscented soap and warm water to clean your vulva. Bathe and put on a clean outfit shortly after exercising so that you’re not sitting for too long in hot, sweaty clothes or a damp swimsuit. Warm and wet environments are ideal places for harmful bacteria growth.Don’t douche Douching can upset the pH levels in your vagina and make you vulnerable to infection. If you already have a vaginal infection, douching can force the bacteria deeper inside your body and cause a more severe infection, like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Wear light, breathable clothing Avoid wearing clothes that are too tight on your vulva, like thongs. Instead, wear cotton underwear that won’t hold in heat and moisture.Drink plenty of water Your vagina may have a strong ammonia smell if you’re dehydrated. Without enough water, the waste material in your urine can become especially concentrated and foul-smelling. Water can help with hydration and eliminate the smell.Protect your vagina (and vaginal flora) during sex Wear condoms to reduce your risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other infections, like BV, that can disrupt your vagina’s pH levels. If you’re using a lubricant, choose only unscented and unflavored ones to prevent vaginal irritation. When should I seek treatment for abnormal vaginal odor? If you’re experiencing prolonged abnormal vaginal odor or odor accompanied by discharge, burning and itching, you should see a healthcare provider. Untreated vaginitis can lead to vaginal infections that can spread to your uterus or fallopian tubes. Vaginitis can also increase your risk of contracting STIs.You should especially seek medical care if you’re pregnant. Pregnant people with vaginitis or vaginal odor are at higher risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, amniotic fluid infection and other complications.